Archive for June, 2018

French Voyages to Australia

June 27, 2018

While most of us think of the “discovery” of Australia to be solely a British endeavor, it must be pointed out that there was a French presence as well. According to whom you read, there is much controversy over the claimed fact that a Frenchman got to Australia first. (A very informative overview of French maritime exploration of Australia is found here.) The following are English translations of French expeditions to the land down under:

This three-volume compilation – Terra australis cognita : or, Voyages to the Terra australis, or Southern hemisphere, during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries (1766-68) – includes French voyages to Australia as well. This translated work was originally authored by Charles de Brosses in 1756 and includes a strong argument to develop the territory; it may have influenced James Cook.

Narrative of a Voyage Around the World in the Uranie and Physicienne…. is the 1823 translation of a voyage that lasted from 1817 to 1820; it was undertaken at the behest of the French Academy of Sciences. It is written as a series of letters home and includes much description of the various lands encountered. Of relevance here are the letters written from New Holland (Australia).

James Burney sailed with Cook and between 1803 and 1817 he produced his five-volume compilation A chronological history of the discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean that provides a very comprehensive listing of all forays made into this area. This was considered the standard work through the 19th century.

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Trails West: Primary and Secondary Sources

June 20, 2018

Across the Plains, Mountains and Desert is a bibliography of almost 4500 items of primary and secondary sources dealing with the overland trails from 1812 to 1912. (Where available, links are provided to the full text document.) As is stated in the preface “This bibliography does not discriminate against fur traders, Frenchmen,soldiers, expressmen, merchants, miners bound for Pikes Peak or Montana, or Mormons bound for Utah. If a man, woman, or child left an account of their experiences crossing the northern overland route across the Great Plains, whether going of east or west, I hope it appears here.” (8) Other more specialized sites include Mormon Pioneer Overland Travel, Travels in America, 1750 to 1920, Mountain Men and the Fur TradeThe Gold Rush of California: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles, “California As I Saw It”: First-Person Narratives of Early California, 1849-1900, Oregon Trail Emigrant Resources, and the Merrill J Mattes Collection (trail diaries).

Backgrounds of Royal Navy Surgeons

June 6, 2018

I have come across two recent studies by the same author that shed some light on the educational backgrounds of surgeons during the Age of Sail. Combing various archival and primary sources, Christopher H Myers has uncovered some fascinating data. Please peruse The Demography of Royal Navy Surgeons: Some Views on the Process of Prosopography, Journal of World-Historical Information, 2-3(#1, 2014-2015); and his Explaining the Socio-Economic Demographics of Victorian Naval Medicine.