Both chambers of Congress had these committees, both in existence for over a century; you can find a history, scope, and responsibilities of the House Committee here and the Senate Committee here. Hundreds of 19th century documents can be found here; they deal with the mundane, such as the appointment of rear admirals to significant pieces of legislation that discuss discipline in the navy. Dozens of additional documents, most in the 20th century, are found here. Both committees were absorbed into their respective Armed Services Committees in 1947.
Committee on Naval Affairs